[7.1] Now when tidings of the battle that had been fought at Marathon reached the ears of King Darius, the son of Hystaspes, his anger against the Athenians, which had been already roused by their attack … Herodotus tells that the Greeks have to drive off the enemy four times, and finally succeed in dragging the corpse away. Clear rating. All content copyright © 1995–2020 Livius.org. The Athenian navy ensured that Greece remained independent, and gave Athens an empire in the Aegean Sea, just like Polycrates of Samos and Histiaeus of Miletus had attempted. (Herodotus interrupts his story to digress on a great Greek victory, the Battle of Himera, in which Gelon of Syracuse defeated the Carthaginians.) Herodotus (/ h ɪ ˈ r ɒ d ə t ə s /; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, Attic Greek pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]; c. 484 – c. 425 BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey).He is known for having written the book The Histories … James Romm is the James H. Ottaway, Jr. … He traveled extensively through the lands of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea and collected stories, and then recounted his experiences with the varied people and cultures he encountered. Herodotus' Histories, book 9. summary and comments by Jona Lendering : Twenty-sixth logos: the battle of Plataea (9.1-89) When Mardonius learns that the Athenians are not willing to come to terms, he … The Aftermath of Thermopylae. Book One (complete) Book Two (1-120 and 164-182) Book Three (61-97) Book Five (complete) Book Six (complete) Book Seven (complete) Book … In fact, the leading Greek city in the west, Syracuse, double-crosses the towns in homeland: it sends a herald to Greece, who is to bring earth and water to Xerxes as soon as he is victorious. When Xerxes' soldiers pass through the narrow gap, they are killed by their opponents, who have longer spears and better armor. Herodotus the great Greek historian was born about 484 BCE, at Halicarnassus in Caria, Asia Minor, when it was subject to the Persians. … Kim, Lawrence (2010). 7,000) led by, The Greek defeat and order by Xerxes to remove Leonidas's head and attach his torso to a cross, The destruction by storm of two hundred ships sent to block the Greeks from escaping, The retreat of the Greek fleet after word of a defeat at, The destruction of Athens by the Persian land force after difficulties with those who remained, The escape of Xerxes and leaving behind of 300,000 picked troops under, The refusal of an attempt by Alexander to seek a Persian alliance with Athens, The Persian retreat to Thebes where they are afterwards slaughtered (, The description and dividing of the spoils, The death of Masistes after his intent to rebel, The Persians' abortive suggestion to Cyrus to migrate from rocky Persis, Pamela Mensch, with notes by James Romm, 2014. If they had remained neutral, he points out, the Greeks had not been able to resist the Persian navy, and Xerxes' army could easily have been ferried to every part of Greece, including Sparta. He traveled the eastern Mediterranean and beyond to do research into human affairs: from Greece to Persia, from the sands of Egypt to the Scythian steppes, and from the rivers of Lydia to the dry hills of Sparta. When the 1207 Persians vessels are sailing along the coast of the Thessalian district known as Magnesia, they anchor at a place named Squid's Cape. The Spartans were dead, and he did not speak Persian himself. Outline of Herodotus By David L. Silverman Table of Contents. The three days of fighting at Thermopylae coincided with the fighting at the sea between off Artemisium. Named Polymnia after the greek muse of sacred poetry. Herodotus does not mention the full moon, but its light was absolutely necessary for the Persians to ascend the mountain path. Rate this book. Herodotus tells us about loyal Thessalian envoys, who visit the council of the allied cities in the spring, when Xerxes is still at the Hellespont (above). After the fall of Thermopylae, the road to Greece lies open. Then, the Thebans desert their allies and surrender; the Spartans and Thespians retreat to a small hill, where they are killed by Persian archers. Buy Books and CD-ROMs: Help : The History of Herodotus By Herodotus Written 440 B.C.E Translated by George Rawlinson. Herodotus was a Greek historian living in Ionia during the fifth century b.c.e. "Some demonstrably false source citations". [citation needed] Although not a fully impartial record, it remains one of the West's most important sources regarding these affairs. Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian who lived in the fifth century BC (c.484 - 425 BC). The fact that Leonidas asked for reinforcements when the Persian army was already at close quarters, does not say much for his military abilities. Europeans; Darius Fails To Conquer Scythia; Greek Colonies In Libya (Cyrene, Barca); Persia Invades … The absence of a monument for the Thebans tells a lot about the popularity of Herodotus. The allied commanders learn that the pass can be turned, and they withdraw. All struggles among the Greeks are to cease for the duration of the war, in which the Spartans will have the supreme command. Several years before, a rich vein of silver had been struck at Laurion (a village southeast of Athens) and Themistocles had suggested to use the money to construct two hundred galleys. In the Behistun inscription, nearly all Darius' enemies receive this treatment, and Alexander the Great was to do the same after he had defeated Bessus. Now that title is one that he richly deserves. [2] Written in 430 BC in the Ionic dialect of classical Greek, The Histories serves as a record of the ancient traditions, politics, geography, and clashes of various cultures that were known in Greece, Western Asia and Northern Africa at that time. An inscription found at Troezen in the Peloponnese mentions that. Anecdotes illustrating the brave spirit of various Spartans (226-27). King Xerxes waits four days before he orders his soldiers to attack the contemptibly small Greek garrison. Herodotus claims to have traveled extensively around the ancient world, conducting interviews and collecting stories for his book, almost all of which covers territories of the Persian Empire. Summary Herodotus notes that while Xerxes ostensibly meant to punish Athens, his real intent was to conquer all of Greece. Here Begins Book VII (called Polymnia) of Herodotus' Histories, Being the Continuation of the Narative from Book VI. This is an overstatement. Herodotus adds to this encomium that the Athenian decision to join the war against the Asian invaders, was especially courageous because the oracle of Delphi had predicted eminent doom if the Athenians were to stand firm. The Histories also stands as one of the earliest accounts of the rise of the Persian Empire, as well as the events and causes of the Greco-Persian Wars between the Persian Empire and the Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. If Leonidas' army is victorious, the war is over; when the Greek navy defeats its opponent, Xerxes has to withdraw his army. As a corollary of the decision to trust on the 'wooden wall that shall not fall', Athens was evacuated. When the Athenian statesman tried to persuade the people's assembly, he seems to have pointed at the threat of theAeginetan navy (above). The Thessalians are now without support, and as we have already seen, surrender to Xerxes when he demands earth and water (above). A final remark must be made about the role of the Thebans. In The Histories, he describes the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire under its kings … Chroniclers of the Persians … The Persian army invades Thessaly along the pass of Tempe, and reaches Thermopylae without further incidents. Religious precautions are taken: the oracle at Delphi orders the Greeks to 'pray to the winds, which will be staunch allies of Greece'. Then, he orders his men to go forward against their opponents, who are lashed towards the Spartans by their officers. Herodotus is the guy who invented history. I'm not used to thinking of a history book as a page-turner but the last four chapters of the Histories, which describe the Persian wars, were compelling reading. Herodotus takes the reader from the rise of the Persian Empire to its crusade against Greek independence, and from the stirrings of Hellenic self-defense to the beginnings of the overreach that would turn Athens into a new empire of its own. He goes from the cosmos to the atom, ranging between fate and the gods, on the one hand, and the ability of the individual to make a difference, on the other. Herodotus' judgment on these soldiers is unfair. Book seven of the histories of Herodotus. The History of Herodotus has been divided into the following sections: Book I [299k] Book II [249k] Book III [221k] Book IV [230k] Book V [162k] Book VI [174k] Book VII [286k] Book … Candaules, King of Lydia, shews his wife by stealth to Gyges…, "2,500 Years Ago, Herodotus Described a Weird Ship. Maybe he knew a Greek who had accompanied Xerxes, perhaps a Halicarnassian or an attendant of Demaratus. This is a report of great and wonderful deeds by Greeks and Barbarians. The discussion about the oracle probably took place in September 481, when Xerxes was on his way to Sardes. Meanwhile, the council at Corinth decides to guard Thermopylae, which seems easily defensible. In Book 9, Herodotus concludes his account of the Persian invasion of Greece under Xerxes and Mardonius. Meanwhile, a Persian spy is ordered to find out if it is true that Thermopylae is guarded by a very small number. Herodotus's Histories Chapter Summary. Herodotus’s subject in his History is the wars between Greece and Persia (499–479 bce) and their preliminaries.As it has survived, the History is divided into nine books (the division is not the author’s): Books I–V describe the background to the Greco-Persian Wars; Books VI–IX contain the history … The Histories was at some point divided into the nine books that appear in modern editions, conventionally named after the nine Muses. He explains his theory that it is the Athenians who ensured the freedom of … that one hundred ships will lie in wait and defend the land. Moreover, it established the genre and study of history in the Western world (despite the existence of historical records and chronicles beforehand). A second wave of troops consists of the ten thousand Immortals, the royal bodyguard, but these elite troops do no better. In The Histories, he describes the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire under its kings Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, and Darius I the Great, culminating in Xerxes ' expedition to Greece (480 … Leonidas choose the second alternative. From Persian sources, nothing is known about a corps called Immortals. Herodotus: The Histories, translated by Robin Waterfield, is an excellent version of the famous work.As with all of Waterfield's translations, the prose is lively, easy to read, and instantly … Book 1 - CLIO Book 2 - EUTERPE Book 3 - THALIA Book 4 - MELPOMENE Book 5 - TERPSICHORE Book 6 - ERATO Book 7 - POLYMNIA Book 8 - URANIA Book 9 - CALLIOPE. The Persian position does not improve during the second day of the battle. The Thespian contingent and a seer named Megistias refuse to leave. The man who made the motion was none other than Themistocles. He first sends the Median and Elamite contingents, which are easily repelled by the defenders of the narrow road. Herodotus explains why Leonidas decides to stay: because the oracle had announced that Sparta would either be destroyed or lose its king (above). Now, Herodotus certainly deals with Greek misbehavior and malfeasance throughout The Histories, but to close out his work with such a story of incest and intrigue at the Persian court is surely a deliberate … The loyalty of Aegina and Syracuse was wavering. When this oracle was read in front of the people's assembly in the year preceding Xerxes' invasion, the Athenian leader Themistocles (above) had pointed out that it contained a cryptic reference to a 'wooden wall that shall not fall'. He is a philosopher with three great themes: the struggle between East and West, the power of liberty, and the rise and fall of empires. When Leonidas falls, a bitter struggle over his body breaks out. The place is too small to contain all ships. His narrative ability is one of the reasons...those who call Herodotus the father of history. Already in Antiquity, people criticized Herodotus for this error; the Greek author Plutarch of Chaeronea even wrote an angry treatise on the subject, called Herodotus' Malice. Herodotus, The Histories A. D. Godley, Ed. (Herodotus does not use the name.) Xerxes orders Leonidas' body to be crucified. As we will see, the winds were indeed the best defense of Greece. Here the Persian army has to be stopped. The subsequent Trojan War is marked as a precursor to later conflicts between peoples of Asia and Europe. At the same time, the council sends 147 Athenian and 124 other warships to Artemisium, where they will lie in wait for the Persian navy. And the first action undertaken by the allies, was a disaster, as we will see right now. Many of the invaders fall into the sea and drown. That's not to slight the first five book, which describe the world of Herodotus… And then there is the sheer narrative power of his writing...The old master keeps calling us back.[3]. Probably, Herodotus' informer confused the correct name Anûšiya ('companions') with Anauša ('Immortals'). The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. It is unclear how Herodotus knew what happened during the battle. Herodotus makes an unconvincing attempt to explain their name from the fact that each casualty would immediately be replaced, so that the corps was immortal. This narrow pass, which controls the only road between Thessaly and central Greece, is only two meters wide; on the northern side are cliffs that fall to the sea, on the southern side are mountains. The battle of Thermopylae can be dated with some accuracy: 17, 18 and 19 September (or one day later). Demaratus explains that the Spartans are preparing themselves for a good fight. So it's fitting that, through Herodotus' book, the English patient reveals his own history. Lee "The Histories Book 7 Polymnia" por Herodotus disponible en Rakuten Kobo. On the other hand, it may be that Leonidas' kamikaze had a religious motivation: if the oracle announced that the Spartans would loose their town or their king, it was reasonable to sacrifice a king to save the city. Even today, the reputation of the Thebans remains stained. The Greek for “research” is historia, where our word “history” comes from ... Herodotus is a great historian. Xerxes' hesitation to attack for several days can easily be explained: he was waiting until his fleet had reached Aphetae. There are two ugly modern monuments at Thermopylae - one for the Spartans and one for the Thespians. There is a mountain path. If his source were a Theban, his view on the role of the Thebans would have been kinder. Fehling, Detlev (1989). The spies that the Greeks sent to Xerxes' camp at Sardes, were caught (above). Home » Sources » About » Herodotus' logoi » Herodotus, bk 7, logos 22, About Pictures Sources Countries Languages Categories Tags Thanks FAQ Donate Contact Articles Stubs. The Olympic games, during which the Greeks were not allowed to fight, lasted until the night of full moon; this explains why Leonidas received no reinforcements. The site of the last stand of the Spartans and Thespians has been identified by the discovery of Persian arrowheads; besides, Herodotus' description of the topography is excellent (text). Then, a Greek named Ephialtes informs the great king of the possibility to turn the position of the Greek army. Pamela Mensch's translation of Diogenes Laertius' Lives and Doctrines of Eminent Philosophers is forthcoming from Harvard Universtiy Press. Herodotus' judgment is correct. Histories Book 9 Summary & Analysis. Herodotus' book also contains ethnographic descriptions of the peoples that the Persians have conquered, fairy tales, gossip, and legends. Simultaneously, it tells the story of the growth of the Persian Empire. This page was created in 1996; last modified on 24 September 2020. He confirms the earlier report, and adds that he has seen the Spartans combing their hair. [1] Now when the report came to Dareios the son of Hystaspes of the battle which was … They have to lay off-shore in lines, eight deep, and are an easy victim of a sudden and violent storm. The Greek garrison is small (4000 men, including 300 heavily armored Spartans, 400 Corinthians and 400 Thebans), and Leonidas sends heralds to the Greek towns, asking for reinforcements. In The Histories, he describes the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire under its kings Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, and Darius I the Great, culminating in Xerxes' expedition to Greece (480 BCE), which met with disaster in the naval engagement at Salamis and the battles at Plataea and Mycale. He travelled widely in most of Asia Minor, Egypt (as far as Assuan), … When the Athenians destroyed the Persian navy at Salamis (below), it was no longer possible to maintain an oversized army in hostile territory. Find summaries for every chapter, including a Histories Chapter Summary Chart to help you understand the book. The Spartans learned from Delphian prophetess that they would either see their city in ruins or a dead king. This was the decision of the Athenian people's assembly. (Go here for an explanation of the contemporaneity.). They request assistance, so that they may stop Xerxes at the northern border of Greece. "Homer, poet and historian". Herodotus adds that this navy had been build only recently. He sends away the other troops, but orders the Spartans and Thebans to stay. There may be much truth in the statement of the great German historian Julius Beloch (1864-1929) that the death of the three hundred was a mistake: their self-sacrifice did not serve any military purpose, except - of course - the removal of an incompetent commander. 1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars. The Histories by Herodotus 42,336 ratings, 3.98 average rating, 1,240 reviews Open Preview ... ― Herodotus, The Histories… On the legacy of The Histories by Herodotus, historian Barry S. Strauss writes: He is simply one of the greatest storytellers who ever wrote. At the beginning of the third day, Leonidas learns that the Immortals, commanded by Hydarnes, will soon descend from the mountains and attack his rear. He had suggested that this implied that Athens should rely on its large navy. The Histories Herodotus TRANSLATED BY GEORGE RAWLINSON BOOK 1 THESE are the researches of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, which he publishes, in the hope of thereby preserving from decay the … Herodotus' opinion that Athens had saved Greece, was indeed one to which many Greeks would have objected. (1.1–5) But he could also have pointed at the canal through the Athos peninsula (above). Fire signals inform the Greeks at Artemisium that Xerxes' navy has left Therma. A Persian king was supposed to mutilate the bodies of defeated enemies. • The rapes of Io, Europa, and Medea, which motivated Paris to abduct Helen. THE HISTORY OF HERODOTUS BOOK I THE FIRST BOOK OF THE HISTORIES, CALLED CLIO This is the Showing forth of the Inquiry of Herodotus of Halicarnassos, to the end that[1] neither the deeds of men … Books V–VIII by A. D. Godley translation with footnotes: This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 17:05. Cicero called him “the father of history… Overview. At the beginning of The Histories, Herodotus sets out his reasons for writing it: Here are presented the results of the enquiry carried out by Herodotus of Halicarnassus. Herodotus' Histories, book 7 summary and comments by Jona Lendering Twentieth logos: Persian preparations (7.1-55) When the news of the disaster at Marathon reaches Darius, he decides for a full … Brief history of Persia - tiny index to Herodotus Herodotus portrays the conflict as one between the forces of slavery (the Persians) on the one hand, and freedom (the Athenians and the confederacy of Greek city-states which united against the invaders) on the other. all Athenian residents will deposit their children and wives at Troezen, that the city is to be entrusted to the goddess, that one hundred ships will defend Greece at. Herodotus has a wonderful, gossipy style that makes reading these histories more fun than studying the rise of the Persian Empire and its clash with Greece—however, that’s exactly what readers will do in this engaging history… Only eight hundred ships reach the save haven of Aphetae, opposite Artemisium. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (c.480-c.429 BCE): Greek researcher, often called the world's first historian. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (c.480-c.429 BCE): Greek researcher, often called the world's first historian. But he is more than a historian. All rights reserved. Almásy keeps this book with him everywhere he goes, a fat volume … ... book 1 book 2 book 3 book 4 book 5 book 6 book 7 book 8 book 9. chapter: chapter 1 chapter 2 chapter 3 chapter 4 chapter 5 chapter 6 chapter 7 chapter 8 … Herodotus the great Greek historian was born about 484 BCE, at Halicarnassus in Caria, Asia Minor, when it was subject to the Persians.He travelled widely in most of Asia Minor, Egypt (as far as Assuan), … In the 430s, when he composed The Histories, Athens was regarded as the suppressor of the other Greek towns. The military alliance that the Spartan diplomats forged in the Autumn of 481, is usually called the Corinthian League. The Histories (Greek: Ἱστορίαι; Ancient Greek: [historíai̯]; also known as The History[1]) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature. Nominally, Xerxes' expedition was directed against Athens, but its real objective was the conquest of the whole of Greece. A Greek who lived in the fifth century BC, Herodotus was a pathfinder. Themistocles' shipbuilding program started in 483. (It was a remarkable and bold decision to meet the Persian attack with naval forces, because Marathon had suggested that infantry could be successful too.) Having stated this at the beginning of the twenty-second logos, Herodotus feels compelled to express an opinion which he knows to be unpopular: that Greece was saved by the Athenians. Many of the Thebans would have been kinder cicero called him “ the father of history, ” researched wrote! Persian sources, nothing is known about a corps called Immortals index to Herodotus seven... Work of history, ” researched and wrote the Histories in the Peloponnese that... Yardstick of modern scholarship A. D. Godley, Ed of Asia Minor, Egypt ( as as... He travelled widely in most of Asia Minor, Egypt ( as far Assuan! 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars Thermopylae, which seems easily defensible stay! 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