English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the northern Netherlands. English language Nonstandard Standard British American Other national standards In order to have an official use of the english language, it has been standardized 9. 3.2.1 Language … 2020 All rights reserved. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. English is ever adopting new words from other languages (350 languages, according to David Crystal in "English as a Global Language"). These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Other varieties of English are well preserved in spite of the leveling influences of film, television, and radio. For example, 'Singlish' (spoken in Singapore) is a variety very different from standard English, and there are many other varieties of English used in India. Hindi 3. French 5. English language is not only the language of 300 million people who live in America, it is also the native language of England, Canada, New Zealand and so on. Varieties of English 4 Weeks 3–4 Focus on language standardisation, the Standard English debate and attitudes to (non-standard) linguistic varieties. Copyright © For instance, in British English, one says I’m going to hospital. Weeks 5–6 Language and ethnicity: Pidgins and creoles, London Jamaican (LJ), African American Vernacular English (AAVE). Australian English is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia. In some South Western accents yat comes from the old singular geat, whereas RP gate comes from the plural gatu. Australian English began to diverge from British English after the founding of the Colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognized as being different from British English by 1820. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Canadian English is believed by some scholars to have derived from northern American English. English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the northern Netherlands. Although Sridhar and Sridhar pointed out as early as 1982 that the two linguistic fields of second language acquisition (SLA) and New English studies could benefit from each other, the gap between the two disciplines has never been closed. British English. Arabic Slang to Make You Sound Like a Native Speaker. The speech of the Atlantic Seaboard shows far greater differences in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary than that of any area in the North Central states, the Upper Midwest, the Rocky Mountains, or the Pacific Coast. A few Scots words, such as bairn, brae, canny, dour, and pawky, have made their way into RP. Blog. English in England Despite this being the origin of the English language, it does not mean the language is the same everywhere in England. Northern Ireland has dialects related in part to Scots and in part to the southern Irish dialect of English. These cookies do not store any personal information. They made new compounds, such as backwoods and bullfrog, and gave new meanings to such words as lumber (which in British English denotes disused furniture, or junk) and corn (which in British English signifies any grain, especially wheat) to mean “maize.”. Other Germanic languages include Dutch, German, Icelandic, Swedish, and more. RP is the only British accent that has no specific geographical correlate: it is not possible, on hearing someone speak RP, to know which part of the United Kingdom he or she comes from. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In American English one says I’m The bilabial semivowel w has developed before o in wold for old, and in wom for home, illustrating a similar development in RP by which Old English ān has become one, and Old English hāl has come to be spelled whole, as compared with Northern hale. The Great Famine of 1845–49 drove 1.5 million Irish to seek homes in the New World, and the European revolutions of 1848 drove as many Germans to settle in Pennsylvania and the Midwest. The European Union has mandated British English (not literally "British", but rather the variety of English used in Cyprus, Ireland, Malta, and the UK) as an official language of the EU, and it is generally standard British English that The first settlers to arrive in Virginia (1607) and Massachusetts (1620) soon learned to adapt old words to new uses, but they were content to borrow names from the local Indian languages for unknown trees, such as hickory and persimmon and for unfamiliar animals, such as raccoon and woodchuck. However, Commonwealth English is the more appropriate term and universally known. The RP /t∫/, the sound of the ch in church, can become k, as in thack (“thatch, roof”) and kirk (“church”). In sociolinguistics, language variety—also called lect —is a general term for any distinctive form of a language or linguistic expression. This group of languages (Welsh, Cornish, Cumbric) cohabited alongside English into the modern period, but due to their remoteness from the Germanic languages, influence on English was notably limited. Flirting in Russian: Top Words and Phrases, Holiday Gift Guide: 10 Thoughtful (And Unique) Gifts. Read on to find out more about the various types of English language that are present in countries around the world. Lord Macaulay played a major role in introducing English and western concepts to education in India. To some extent these regions preserve the traditional speech of southeastern and southern England, where most of the early colonists were born. But in British English you'd say, "She's got better." Virtual holiday party ideas + new holiday templates; Dec. 11, 2020 The use of English has spread far beyond those countries where it is used as a Þrst language. The view of this language among many Indians has gone from associating it with colonialism to associating it with economic progress, and English continues to be an official language of India, albeit with an Indian twist, popularly known as Indian English. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Take those English-speaking countries and split them into their major groups by accent, and we can define broad varieties of the language such as British English, American English, Australasian English and Irish English. Varieties Of English Looking at different flavors of English: all the different accents, dialects, pronunciations, registers and so on. However, there are some significant differences in pronunciation, spelling and word usage around the world. English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the de facto language of the country because of its widespread use. Slight regional variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. Canadian English is the product of five waves of immigration and settlement over a period of more than two centuries. Commonwealth English is the most important language variety in Australia, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, the Cook Islands, Dominica, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Grenada, Guernsey, Guyana, Ireland, Jamaica, Isle of Man, Jersey, Malta, Montserrat, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, the Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint … Its seven major subdialects comprise the Delaware Valley, the Susquehanna Valley, the Upper Ohio Valley, northern West Virginia, the Upper Potomac and Shenandoah, southern West Virginia and eastern Kentucky, western North Carolina and South Carolina, and eastern Tennessee. Keywords: English language, varieties, characteristics, differences 1. Language may changes from region to region, from one social class to another, from individual to individual, and from situation to 4. The vowel sound in the words go, home, and know in some Northern accents is /ɔ:/, approximately the sound in law in some American English accents. * * * * * * English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. Language, dialect, and varieties 1. The resident population at this time was generally speaking Common Brittonic—the insular variety of continental Celtic, which was influenced by the Roman occupation. In several Northern accents, RP /a:/ (the first vowel sound in father) is still pronounced /æ/ (a sound like the a in fat) in words such as laugh, fast, and path; this pronunciation has been carried across the Atlantic into American English. For the present overview the varieties of English in the modern world are divided into four geographical groups as follows. English Language Teaching September, 200937 auxiliary ‘May’ in Indian English seem odd and can be regarded as the violation/deviation of rules, it can be agreed that they are acceptable in its own context rather than being regarded Remember, there is not just one English that we TEFL teachers teach – there are over 57 varieties! Remember, there is not just one English that we TEFL teachers teach – there are over 57 varieties! This part of the subject content also requires students to study social attitudes to, and debates about, language diversity. Like most languages, there are varieties of English too, however, the difference is not as prominent as you may see in other languages. Thanks to such writers as Robert Burns and Sir Walter Scott, many Scottish Gaelic words have been preserved in English literature. The Midland dialect is spoken in the coastal region from Point Pleasant, in New Jersey, to Dover, in Delaware. Top 10 blogs in 2020 for remote teaching and learning; Dec. 11, 2020. Introduction English is not only known as the language of the English people, but also as the language spoken by people in To these questions and to the varieties of the Italian language we must add its dialects, which should never be thought as a deformation or a vulgarisation of this language. English language - English language - Varieties of English: The abbreviation RP (Received Pronunciation) denotes what is traditionally considered the standard accent of people living in London and the southeast of England and of other people elsewhere who speak in this way. When, however, the definite article is reduced to t and the following word begins with t or d, as in t’tail or t’dog, it is replaced by a slight pause as in the RP articulation of the first t in hat trick. Philippine English has evolved tremendously from where it began decades ago. The Different Varieties of French by Day Translations - October 17, 2019 7 2435 0 1 Shares Share Tweet Pin 1 Languages can change a lot when spoken in different parts of the world. In some countries, such as India, Malawi, the Philippines and Singapore, English is an important second language for many speakers, and has often become the language used in ofÞcial contexts such as courts, parliament and higher education. ASt this is such a huge topic, I’m ignoring the historical Englishes, OE and ME; I’m looking briefly at the ‘occupational’ varieties of English… In postcolonial regions, English is widely used as a second language (L2). In Cheshire, Derby, Stafford, and Warwick, RP singing is pronounced with a g sounded after the velar nasal sound (as in RP finger). In view of these statistics, many consider the English language to be a world language. The verbs keel and kemb have developed regularly from Old English cēlan “to make cool” and kemban “to use a comb,” whereas the corresponding RP verbs cool and comb come from the adjective and the noun, respectively. 2.2 Varieties of English 25 2.3 Cross-linguistic comparison 33 2.4 Summary and list of keywords 39 2.5 Exercises 40 2.6 References 42 2.7 Further reading 44 3 Pronominal gender 45 3.1 Overview 45 3.2 Varieties of English 48 The Northern dialect is spoken in New England. Its six chief subdialects comprise northeastern New England (Maine, New Hampshire, and eastern Vermont), southeastern New England (eastern Massachusetts, eastern Connecticut, and Rhode Island), southwestern New England (western Massachusetts and western Connecticut), the inland north (western Vermont and upstate New York), the Hudson Valley, and metropolitan New York. Standard varieties of English These are the varieties of English that have become standard or most recognized and used in the majority of the world. The articles in this volume are intended to bridge what Sridhar and Sridhar (1986) have called the 'paradigm gap' between traditional SLA research on the one hand and research into institutionalised second-language varieties in former colonial territories on the other. Nonstandard The language is used out of rules and it is used in a non-appropiate way Standard The most important thing is the uniformity in grammar and vocabulary, which is used by english speakers not necessary native. Chinese, 2. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. This site is sponsored by the School of Languages, Cultures and Linguistics at the University of New England (Australia) Spanish 6. Two words with initial v have found their way into RP: vat from fat and vixen from fixen (female fox). It arose from the intermingling of early settlers from a great variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles and quickly developed into a distinct variety of English. In Singapore two varieties of the English language has developed, Standard Singapore English and Singapore Colloquial English (Singlish). English language, West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family that is closely related to the Frisian, German, and Dutch (in Belgium called Flemish) languages. Three dialects can be defined: Northern, Midland, and Southern. Thus, one hears t’book but th’apple. This term is used to distinguish the quality of written English language used in the UK from other varieties. These varieties have their own ways of pronouncing words, their own special vocabulary and even their own grammatical rules. Less than one-fourth of its people, living mostly in the province of Quebec, have French as their mother tongue. After the close of the American Civil War, millions of Scandinavians, Slavs, and Italians crossed the ocean and eventually settled mostly in the North Central and Upper Midwest states. From the thick Ugandan English to the French-themed Canadian English, the varieties of accents present are both diverse and beautiful. English is taught in schools as one of the two official languages of the country, the other being Filipino (Tagalog). But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. In Wales, people often speak a clear and measured form of English with rising intonations inherited from ancestral Celtic. While the English language is uniform with major variations in spelling present between American English and British English, the dialect or accent is usually the factor that enables one to distinguish the various types of English out there. English is the most widely-spoken language in the world, having the distinct status of being the official language of multiple countries. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. In some Northern dialects strong verbs retain the old past-tense singular forms band, brak, fand, spak for standard English forms bound, broke, found, and spoke. ENL: English as a native language, these are native speakers born in a English-speaking country, having then this language as their mother tongue. Linguists commonly use language variety (or simply variety) as a cover term for any of the overlapping subcategories of a language, including dialect, register, jargon, and … English is the primary language of business throughout the world. Other East Anglian words show consonantal metathesis (switch position), as in singify for signify, and substitution of one liquid or nasal for another, as in chimbly for chimney and synnable for syllable. The boundary with Canada nowhere corresponds to any boundary between dialects, and the influence of United States English is strong, being felt least in the Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland and Labrador. English is clarified as a Germanic language, and it began in what is now the British-Isles. Uganda has a large variety of indigenous languages, and someone familiar with Uganda can readily identify the native language of a person speaking English. document.write(new Date().getFullYear()); According to the 2011 census, English was the first language of approximately 19 million Canadians (57% of the population) the remainder of the population were native speakers of Canadian French (22%) or other languages (allophones, 21%). Learn These 18 Greek Romantic Words And Phrases That You Can Use! A lot of the common words used have strange origins. People don't think one way is right and one way is wrong - just that they're different. Check out our article about English Eponyms. Written by Raymond Hickey, English Linguistics, University of Duisburg and Essen, Germany. Comparisons across the varieties provide a comprehensive guide to differences in phonetics, phonology, grammar and vocabulary, providing a useful resource for teachers of English as a foreign language and linguistics students Instead we need to recognise the roles and functions that different varieties of English, including that of standard English, fulfil. Hantle for handful shows syncope (disappearance) of an unstressed vowel, partial assimilation of d to t before voiceless f, and subsequent loss of f in a triple consonant group. Back-formations, blends, and other types of word-formation, Transition from Middle English to Early Modern English. They tend to aspirate both plosives (stops) and fricative consonants very forcibly; thus, two is pronounced with an audible puff of breath after the initial t, and while may be heard with a voiceless /w/. The English population never did switch to French, the language of the conquerors; instead, the Norman French eventually switched to English. English is the main language in many places, an important language in others, and spoken as a second language in most of the rest of the world. The Southern dialect area covers the coastal region from Delaware to South Carolina. Each has its subdialects. It's the same with the language varieties described in this site. Although this classification shows some problems such the fact that the classification of bilingual speakers and the psychological problems shown in ENL of speakers of non-standard varieties and ESL of speakers who are not comfortable to use the language in certain situations. All varieties of English share the same basic tenets of the language, but certain words, phrases or linguistic constructs may differ. Students will study varieties of English within the British Isles. Presenting an informal history of American English. International English: A Guide to Varieties of English Around the World The English Language Series: Amazon.es: Trudgill, Peter, Hannah, Jean: Libros en idiomas extranjeros Check out our article about English Eponyms. The two main groups are Britain and America. In some South Western accents, initial f and s are often voiced, becoming v and z. Later they took words from foreign settlers: chowder and prairie from the French, scow and sleigh from the Dutch. British English (or UK English) is the term used by Americans in referring to versions of English used in the UK and outside America. Most of the educated Singaporeans speak Standard Singapore English, mostly because it is not too far from British English … Tanzania, India) and contiguous regions (e.g. Which variety of English should we teach? Dec. 11, 2020. Canadian English There are many varieties of English spoken around the world, and Canadian English is one The term “Canadian English” is first attested in a speech by the Reverend A. Constable Geikie in an address to the Canadian Institute in 1857. This encompasses both the well-established varieties in England and the newer varieties that have emerged as English has spread to become a world language. Today, urbanization, quick transport, and television have tended to level out some dialectal differences in the United States. Another South Western feature is the development of a d between l or n and r, as in parlder for parlour and carnder for corner. British Englishis the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom or, more broadly, throughout the British Isles. Various social and regional dialects, and varieties Sari Kusumaningrum, SS, M.Hum 2 dialects elsewhere! 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